Portland Cement Quality Characteristics

Portland Cement Quality Characteristics

The article on portland cement quality features is prepared in collaboration with Telling Company, the engineering enterprise massively applying hydraulic lime, lime mortar and concrete materials in its projects. The UK-based business concentrates its efforts on residential and commercial architectural, design and engineering projects, collaborating with the industry experts and utilising the most efficient and modern materials.

Portland cement is used mainly for concrete and reinforced concrete structures in the ground, underground and underwater structures, including those that are prone to freeze-thaw. As the first choice solutions portland cements are used only in those cases where there is no cheaper binder alternative – air and hydraulic lime, blended cements and others. When choosing cement it is required to keep in mind introduction of solutions, water-retaining additives – lime, clay, ash, ground limestone, and others. In any case of using portland cement it should be taken into account that there are special versions of this binder – fast curing, plasticized, hydrophobic and white, as well as mixed based on Portland cement or lime-based. In addition, possible to use other kinds of cements, which are also necessary to keep in mind when choosing a sustainable binder for specific construction purposes. They are all in one way or another are discussed below.


The Ultrasonic Cleaning Nuts & Bolts

The Ultrasonic Cleaning Nuts & Bolts

Ultrasonic cleaning implies producing ultrasonic vibrations to remove contamination on hard surfaces. The application of ultrasound causes the high speed cleaning process and increases the quality. In many cases, the method provides an opportunity to replace flammable and toxic solvents with safer cleaners, providing the quality of comparable level. The process requires using high quality ultrasonic cleaner equipment, represented on the market in a variety of solid brands, such as Hilsonic. The company concentrates its effort on innovative ultrasound developments, boasting a good number of patents acquired and truly cost-effective pricing program (fact: the company claims its average customer is saving up to 18% on operational expenses within the first 24 months of using the equipment).

How it works?

Ultrasonic cleaning is used in many industries for the repair and production of machinery and jewelery, it is used in restoration business, in medicine, as well as in the production of printed circuit boards for washing the surface with solder paste residues, organic matter, contamination, solder and flux.

Ultrasonic vibrations cause the emergence of liquid standing waves due to the combined action of various nonlinear effects arising in the liquid under the action of high-power ultrasonic vibration is cleaned. These effects: cavitation, acoustic streaming, sound pressure, acoustic-capillary effect of cavitation play a crucial role. Cavitation bubbles collapsing in vicinity of polluted areas destroy the contamination build-ups. This effect is known as cavitation erosion. (more…)

Busting Wind Energy Myths

Busting Wind Energy Myths

The article aims at dispelling the myths around wind energy, the technology gaining momentum rapidly in the highly developed economies. Whether it is truly economically feasible? What about environmental harms? Let’s study the most thought-provoking questions under the microscope here and now.

  1. Wind power is expensive

Wind energy is competitive in regions with moderate to high wind speed. Given the fact that the manufacture of wind energy equipment requires constructing wind turbines (50% of total cost accounts to turbine manufacturing), the entire process is deprived of utilising raw materials, reducing environmental pollution and dozens of other operational expenses.

In addition, the cost of wind energy is decreasing annually due to the new technologies, unlike the energy produced at plants running on coal or uranium.

  1. Wind power is an unreliable source of energy

Weather affects the amount of energy generated by wind power. However, it does not mean that wind farms are unreliable. Unlike modern power plants, wind power can run smoothly even in the event of a breakdown of one of the wind turbines – for the rest of the installation will work.

  1. Wind turbines during short periods of time

At full capacity wind power plant is operating only 10% of the time, despite the fact that they are built in windy areas. However, wind turbines generate electricity throughout most of functioning the time (65-80%), although the amount of energy produced can vary.

Nevertheless, none of the plants produces energy at 100% of the declared capacity on a constant basis. In addition, the sectors are often closed for repairs and maintenance.

  1. Wind turbines are inefficient

Wind turbines demonstrate nice efficiency and to prove this, an energy return can be calculated – the interval of time during which a certain amount of energy produced. Wind station, according to research by US scientists from the University of Madison-Wilson, produces 17-40 times more energy than they consume, while conventional nuclear power plants can boast only 16 times mark.

  1. Wind turbines are very noisy

The neoteric solutions in the construction of wind turbines have enabled the engineers to overcome the problem of noise. In particular, the aerodynamic noise reduced by changing the thickness of the turbine blades and their position relative to the wind direction. The level of noise, emitted by turbine at a distance of 250 m is no more noise than the noise of a conventional refrigerator.

  1. Wind turbines are dangerous to humans and animals

Wind energy is not related to the emissions of harmful gases into the atmosphere, water pollution or soil contamination. Throughout 30 years of its full-fledged functioning no significant accidents with wind turbines have been recorded.

  1. Wind turbines are expensive to maintain

As a rule, turbine farm owners have in-staff engineer team or partner with seasoned industry experts, such as Granada Material Handling, providing a broad variety of wind turbine services as well as assisting with wind turbine inspections at more than democratic prices.

Drink Driving Penalties Across The World

Drink Driving Penalties Across The World

In the US, the driver caught drunk for the first time pays a $300 fine in a no accident case, following a temporary 6 months license cessation. During the second time the license may be suspended for ten years, the penalty equal up to $5,000, the third experience will cost up to $10,000. Those looking to test their fate after 3 times risk to be imprisoned for a period of from 48 hours to six months. Sometimes drunk drivers in the US are sentenced to community services. If a drunk driver causes a fatal accident, the verdict may be up to 10 years of prison.

In some European countries the very drunk driving is considered to be a criminal offense

  • in Spain jailed for up to 2 years
  • in Finland – up to 4 years;
  • in Belgium the first drink driving experience will cost ‘as little as 140 euros’.

In Germany, a drunk driver is EUR 500 and 1,000 fined for the first and the second times accordingly, while the third violation costs around EUR 3,000. Officially, the limit is 0.5 ppm, but drivers under 21 years will be penalised even for such a tiny amount of alcohol in the blood. In case of the accident the punishment is envisaged for any nonzero alcohol content. Regular offenders make are forced to undergo examination for suitability to drive (also known as ‘idioten test’ in the masses), which costs about 500 euros.

In France drunk driving is subjected to fines up to EUR 150,000 and 10 years imprisonment in case of serious or lethal consequences. Since July this year, all motorists in France should carry a kit to test the driver’s blood alcohol content to use it before getting in the car. The absence of such a kit implies paying a fine.

In the Scandinavian countries, the size of the fine is determined individually, financial possibilities of the offender are taken into account as well as the number of dependents, the driving experience, psychological state, and so on. In Denmark, the driver’s car is confiscated in case of 3 violations.

In Ukraine, drunk drivers face driving ban of up to three years, a fine of $260 – $425, 40 – 50 hours of community service or 7-10 days of arrest. If a drunk driver is guilty of lethal consequences, he may be imprisoned for up to 15 years.

Legal responsibilities in Asia

The drunk motorists in China are subjected to merciless measures: the ‘drunken’ accident may result into a death penalty. Thus, in 2009 a drunk driver killed five people was sentenced to death. The aggravating circumstance was speeding 160 km/h instead of the allowed 50. In Thailand for a similar crime one is heavily fined, up to the death penalty.

In Singapore, the drunk driver caught for the first time will be deprived of the license for one year. An individual could face a fine or a six-month prison sentence and up to three years of imprisonment.

UK driving under influence

In the UK a drunk driver will be fined up to 7,200 pounds. The legal attitude is relatively loyal here; moreover, one can always take advantage of teaming up with law agency to commute the punishment. Thus, one can team up with a reputed law firm with motoring solicitors, also known as ‘drink driving solicitors’ to reduce the fine amount to minimum. If you are looking for a decent services provider, consider the option of playing the ball with Forster Dean Solicitors, running the offices in a good number of cities throughout the country. (more…)